Wednesday, November 27, 2019

At School I Have Been Bullied by a Teacher

At School I Have Been Bullied by a Teacher Hashtag: #EnElColegioTengo (At school I have) Why Some Teachers Crossed the Line? A 14-year old girl in her second year of high school was yelled at, humiliated, and sent out of the room by her well-experienced male science teacher for simply asking stupid questions. Teachers who bullied their students, according to study, were mostly new teachers overwhelmed by frustrations or tenured teachers who were very set in their ways and unwilling to change their traditional coercive teaching practices. A few instances of accidental coercive reaction due to lack of experience and frustrating students’ behavior may be acceptable for new teachers but the bullying male science teacher is a veteran teacher. One explanation is the fact bullying behavior is rooted in personal values, ingrained, and consistent with the way a person understands the world. Since the behavior of tenured teachers served them well in the past and in fact earned them their current position and authority, they see themselves as superior, arrogant and unsympathetic towards â€Å"inferior† students. Study of bullying teachers shows that regardless of frustration or student’s positive behavior, teachers who are more senior, tenured, and experienced teachers routinely practiced bullying behavior. These include habitual utterance of offensive or suggestive language, derogatory or degrading remarks, get involved in coercive sexual behavior, racist and sexist comments, embarrassing, threatening, and intimidating remarks. Moreover, regardless of their position and authority, they engaged in spreading false rumors in an attempt to discredit and socially isolate an individual. Is There a Cure for Teacher’s Bullying Behavior? Connecting with students in both personal and professional manner is often very challenging. The study shows that teachers who cannot control a student displaying negative behavior in class often engage in power struggle until they become frustrated and respond with bullying. For this reason, it may be helpful for teachers to avoid engaging in the power struggle with aggressive or irritating students. Some of the recommended strategies to avoid power struggle is to build a positive relationship with students through caring concern, constructive feedback, and respect. For example, teachers communicating respectfully, paying attention to students concern, acknowledging those with positive behaviors, working with each student to address behavioral problems is unlikely to get negative responses from students. In contrast, those who used force and engaging in the power struggle, make a public scene of a student’s negative behavior, and taking it too personal often form the negative relationship, increased the potential for burnout, frustration, and bullying behavior. The above recommendations are clearly not inapplicable to â€Å"superior† tenured teachers who in a way value their deeply rooted unethical teaching practices. Since the principal in practice avoids dismissing these senior bullies, some of them were reassigned to non-teaching positions where cannot harm students. Other less senior bullies, probably those with potential for change, were sent to some sort of anti-bullying programs aimed at changing their culture, attitudes, feelings, and behavior. In preventing tenured teachers’ bullying, some programs encourage teaching and non-teaching staff to report a teacher bullying a student. Others conducted a student empowerment session aimed at balancing the power inside the classroom. This program in practice promotes awareness of bullying behaviors and their consequences and eventually developed respect between both parties.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Witchcraft accusations, trials, and hysteria in border regions and rural areas in Western Europe

Witchcraft accusations, trials, and hysteria in border regions and rural areas in Western Europe The sixteenth century was marked by a great number of witch trials in rural areas and border regions of Western Europe. This situation could be observed in England, Scotland, Germany, France, and other countries.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Witchcraft accusations, trials, and hysteria in border regions and rural areas in Western Europe specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To a great extent, this phenomenon can be attributed to the following factors: 1) official recognition of witchcraft and the activities of religious zealots who inspired the persecution of many people; 2) the stereotypes and superstitions about women and their relations with supernatural powers; 3) poverty, wars, and religious turmoil. These are the main issues that should be taken into account. At first, one should mention that the religious authorities recognized the existence of witches. For instance, it is possible to refer to the bull of Innoce nt VIII in which he grants local authorities the right to â€Å"do all things necessary† in order to struggle with witches (Innocent VIII unpaged). Furthermore, much attention should be paid to the notorious treatise Malleus Maleficarum which is also known as The Hammer of Witches. Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, who were the authors of this text, popularized the idea that many people could be the servant of â€Å"devils† (Kramer and Sprenger 41). To some degree, this book contributed to the growing hysteria about witches, especially in Germany. Finally, it is critical to mention that the stereotypes according to which women were more likely to be to be seduced by the devil (Verlet). They contributed to the victimization of many women, especially spinsters and widows since they were most powerless (Verlet). These are some of the forces that increased the fear of witches. Moreover, it is critical to remember that witchcraft accusations were more widespread in the ar eas that could be profoundly affected by wars and poverty (Lualdi 320). To some extent, they intensified people’s hostility to one another. Among such regions, one can distinguish rural areas of Scotland and Germany. Under such circumstances, people were more likely to use witchcraft accusations as a means of acquiring wealth. In turn, the most unprotected victims could be widows and spinsters. Thus, one should focus on the socio-economic aspects of this phenomenon.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, witch trials were more widespread in the countries where the influence of the Catholic Church was weakest. Again, one can speak about Germany or Switzerland. These states were mostly profoundly affected by the Protestant Reformation. Moreover, the role of Catholicism in Scotland or England was reduced because the government did not want the church to interfere in to its policies (Hunt et al. 464). The main problem is that the declining power of the Roman Catholicism gave rise to people who could be viewed as religious fanatics. Moreover, even religious leaders of the Protestant Reformation such as Calvin and Luther approved of witch trials (Ankerloo 11; Brady 626). In turn, the activities of religious zealots were least controlled in rural areas of these countries. This is another aspect that can be distinguished. Thus, one can say that the witchcraft hysteria can be attributed to a combination of different factors. Much attention should be paid to the role of zealots who raised panic about witchcraft and insisted on persecution of many innocent people. Additionally, poverty and war contributed the increased number of witchcraft accusations especially in rural or borderline regions. These are the main factors that made witch hunt possible in Western Europe. Ankerloo, Bengt. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Period of the Witch Trials, New York: Continuum, 2002. Print. Brady, Thomas. Handbook of European History 1400 1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation, London: BRILL, 1994. Print. Hunt, Lynn, Thomas Martin, Barbara Rosenwein, and Bonnie Smith. Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures, London: Bedford, 2012. Print. Innocent VIII. Bull Summis Desiderantes. 5 Dec. 1484. Web. We will write a custom essay sample on Witchcraft accusations, trials, and hysteria in border regions and rural areas in Western Europe specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kramer, Heinrich and James Sprenger. The Malleus Maleficarum, New York, Book Tree, 2000. Print. Lualdi, Katharine. Sources of The Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures, London: Bedford, 2012. Print. Verlet, Melissa. The Witch Hysteria. 28 Sep. 2013. Web.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Access to Technology Key to Effective Transit Oriented Development in Essay

Access to Technology Key to Effective Transit Oriented Development in Urban Planning - Essay Example In the 20th century, commuters have preferred personalized modes of transportation over public transportation for numerous reasons. Public transportation meant that they had to compromise on privacy. People felt that public transportation was not an effective way of transportation. Private transportation gave them more freedom and gave them the privacy that was needed. Another important factor that went against improved public transportation is that the time spent in public transportation was waste of quality time and nothing productive could be extracted from it. Even though public transportation was cheaper when compared to private modes of transportation, people preferred private transportation over public transportation. Studies in the recent past have shown that trends are changing. There is a big segment of the urban population that is beginning to use public transportation more often because they are drawn towards a transit-oriented lifestyle. The majority of this segment consists of people under the age of 35, i.e. the Generation Y or Millennials. Joseph P. Schwieterman’s article â€Å"The Travel Habits of Gen Y† is focused on this. It discusses how the technology has changed the perception of the current generation towards public transportation and why more and more people below the age of 35 prefer public transportation over private transportation. The article identifies one of the main reasons for the newly found attractiveness in public transportation is the access to modern technologies. The current generation is highly hooked to electronic gadgets and prefers to stay digitally connected.